Movement

Living things move in a directed and controlled way, moving of their own accord. Non-living things only move if they are pushed or pulled by something else. The majority of animals usually move their whole bodies often supported by specialised organs such as fins, wings and legs. These are called locomotory organs moving the animal from place to place.

Plant movement is not locomotory and does not generally involve moving the whole body. Leaves turning towards the light or shoots growing upwards whatever the orientation of the rest of the plant are examples of how plants move. These movements are generally very slow and not always obvious.

Growth

Living things grow. Most animals grow until they reach maturity and then remain at a constant size while plants usually continue to increase in size throughout their life span. It is important to recognise that growth is a permanent increase in measurable features such as volume, mass and length. Cells increase in number by dividing in a process called mitosis (making genetically exact copies). As the soft tissues increase, so there will be associated increase in size of skeletal support tissue such as bone, shell and wood.

When maturity is reached in animals cell division continues only at a level to maintain consistent size and to repair loss through damage. Putting on weight as a result of over-eating is not considered to be biological growth in this context.

Contents

Nutrition
Reproduction
Respiration
Sensitivity, Excretion
Self assessment