SINGER & FRIEDLANDER REVIEW
Singer & Friedlander Seasonal Review 1998-99
Centre for Research into Sport and Society, University of Leicester,14 Salisbury Road, Leicester, LE1 7RQ, telephone (0116) 252 5930, Fax: (0116) 252 5720, email: email@example.com
This is the second edition of the Singer and Friedlander Review. The aim of this publication is to make a contribution to our understanding of football and the policy process. This edition contains articles on the following subjects:
Management of injuries.
The refereeing crisis.
Football and the growing involvement of the courts.
The relationship between resources and performance in the
Premier Leagues in England and Scotland.
Blacks and Asians in football.
World Cup for people with learning disabilities.
Howard Wilkinson's views on the development of youth football.
Patricia Day OBE (nee Smith), Ex-Deputy Chief Executive of The
FA on the future development of football.
Synopses of selected articles:
Two companion articles by Patrick Murphy
Banking on Success: examining the links between performance and the increasing concentration of wealth in English elite soccer.
English First Division & Premier League 1946-99:
Measured in terms of points and goal difference, there is no
discernible widening in the performance gap and no weakening
in the competitiveness of the League in the post-war period.
This focus on the competitive structure of the League does not
exclude the possibility/probability that the position of elite clubs is
becoming more secure while that of others is becoming less so.
The yo-yo phenomenon. In the 1990s there has been a dramatic
increase in the number of clubs that have experienced
sequences of promotion and relegation. This process has two
dimensions - the playing dimension and the administrative one.
The latter takes the form of so-called 'parachute payments', but
these might be more aptly termed 'trampoline payments'.
Paradox. The yo-yo phenomenon is generally seen as a sign of
the widening gulf between the Premier League and the First
Division. In fact, its operation actually ensures that this gulf
does not widen still further. The most significant gulf is between
the Premier League (together with the yo-yo clubs) and the
rump of the First Division.
For Richer, for Poorer North of the Border: examining the links between resources and performance in Scottish elite soccer
Scottish First Division & Premier League 1946-99
As measured in terms of points and goal difference, Scotland's
top division has become more competitive in the 1990s.
There does seem to be a positive relationship between the
centralisation of resources at Rangers and Celtic and the chances
of one of these clubs winning the league championship.
However, this tendency is occurring in the context of an
increasingly competitive league.
In contrast to the English Premier League, in the 1990s there
has been a drastic decline in the yo-yo phenomenon. But this
can largely be attributed to administrative interventions which
have reduced the number of clubs being relegated and
If they are to further their European ambitions should Rangers
and Celtic seek to move to a more competitive league? The
evidence presented here would suggest that the argument for
such a move cannot rest on the claim that their present situation
is becoming less competitive. If a case is to be made, it has to
rest on pull rather than push factors.
Two companion articles by Ivan Waddington and Martin Roderick
Playing hurt: professional footballers and their injuries
Playing with pain or when injured is a central part of the
culture of professional football.
Players demonstrate to their manager that they have 'the right
attitude' by being prepared to play when injured.
Players who are unavailable for selection because of injury may
be stigmatised as 'malingerers' or held not to have 'the right
Some managers regard injured players as 'non-producers' and
15% of ex-footballers are registered disabled.
On Medical Grounds: the club doctor in professional football
72% of club doctors are general practitioners who work for the
Most have no experience of sports medicine outside their work
with the club.
Most do not have a specialist qualification in sports medicine
and do not see their main career as being in sports medicine.
Jobs are not normally advertised, there is no job description and
often no interviews.
Most club doctors inherit the post from a relative or senior
partner in their practice; as one doctor put it, 'it's dead men's
'Hard Cases' in Court - Martin Roderick
Bradford City striker, Gordon Watson, was seriously injured
following a late tackle by Huddersfield Town's Kevin Gray. In
October 1998, Watson successfully sued Gray for negligence and
received damages for loss of earnings.
Most footballers are reluctant to take legal action primarily
because of the costs and the uncertainty of outcome. Cases of
violence in professional football are dealt with by The FA's
tribunal system. While the effectiveness of this system is
questionable, the courts seem cautious about intervention.
This article examines the Watson case and other high profile
cases with a view to exploring the relationship between violence
in professional football and the law.
A Game of Two Halves - Dominic Malcolm and Oliver Last
Examines the involvement of blacks and Asians in football.
Looks at the over representation of black players in football,
how they are concentrated in certain playing roles, and their
disproportionate representation at the highest levels.
the average transfer fee for black players is substantially higher
than for their white counterparts.
Two companion articles on referees and refereeing
Stalking Referees -Sharon Colwell
Considers the pros and cons of some of the regularly proposed
'one liner' solutions to the complex problem of refereeing.
Outlines research being undertaken into refereeing and
monitoring the performance of referees.
Trading Places - Sharon Colwell and Patrick Murphy
Can even the best referees stand up to trial by television?
Do their arch-critics - managers and commentators - exhibit the
qualities befitting a competent referee?
It is said to be a 'man's game'. Are some of the more prominent
critics of referees 'man enough' to trade places with referees
and officiate a televised game?
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