New World Cup Resource
studies experts at the University of Leicester - the first in the country to
research the causes of football hooliganism - have compiled a new web resource
on the World Cup.
with facts and information on the Finals, the resource provides an insight into
the increasing commercialisation of the game - and the implications this has for
also deals with issues relating to hooliganism and national identity.
at the Sir Norman Chester Centre for Football Research at the University of
Leicester have released the comprehensive fact sheet on the following web
examination is the increasing role of commercialism in the World Cup finals and
particularly the new kinds of sponsors that are becoming involved.
brief history of FIFA is offered along with a look at Sepp Blatter's role at the
head of the organisation.
researcher Sam Neatrour said: "The fact sheet looks at the preparations
made by the co-hosts for the event and gives some details of the new stadia that
have been built.
is acknowledged that the costs incurred by the two countries are twice that of
the previous finals. The TV deal is documented with reference to the massive
amounts of money the media have paid to get the broadcast rights.
questions surrounding security are looked at along with the issues of ticketing
and the hooligan threat. Finally, attention is turned to the FA's efforts to try
to offer a different identity for England fans, in particular the ideas and
findings of the chairman of The England Members Club, Mark Perryman. A new
approach for a national community."
Neatrour added: "In compiling this fact sheet the Sir Norman Chester Centre
for Football Research has provided an invaluable resource or starting point for
anyone researching, or who has an interest in, the issues which are facing
international football, its governing body and the World Cup finals"
For more information please contact Sam Neatrour Researcher, Sir Norman Chester
Centre for Football Research, University of Leicester, tel: 0116 252 2751
the threat of hooliganism rather than terrorism is the major concern for
officials in Japan and Korea. Not only has either country simply never
accommodated travelling football supporters on this scale before, but also they
have never had to deal with the threat of the European football hooligan. It has
been suggested that because of their relative inexperience in dealing with
hooliganism, police may not know how to handle the problem appropriately. It has
been reported in the British press that the Japanese authorities have planned to
use a 'secret weapon' to deal with hooligans, a gun that fires 'restraining
nets.' The Japanese authorities have bought forty of the guns. With the England
v Argentina group match being one of the high-risk games in the first phase the
guns may be seen for the first time in a major sports tournament.
reputation that England has for exporting hooliganism has led to plans to
increase the number of police officers at England matches in Japan. The expected
number of police officers for England matches is now 500-700; this would be the
highest number used in the whole first phase of the tournament. For any football
hooligans convicted in Japan of serious violence arrangements are being
contemplated which will allow such offenders to serve their sentences in the UK.
The Japanese have accepted the suggestion that those people who are convicted of
an offence which demands a four month sentence or longer, can serve their
sentences in their home countries. The costs of dealing with foreign offenders
is one of those things which deters home governments from seeking convictions
against foreign nationals.
was anticipated that up to 10,000 English fans will travel at some stage to the
finals in Japan. Of these, it is likely that very few will be committed
hooligans. Unlike venues in Europe for example, Japan is difficult and expensive
to reach, offers no opportunities for short stay visits, and offers little of
the 'beach, sun and drinking' culture which seems to be part and parcel of
attractive venues for England fans who might be willing to get involved in
'trouble' at international tournaments. What is more concerning, perhaps, is the
way the Japanese authorities might react to 'normative', northern European
non-hooligan supporter styles. The collective street drinking, singing and
carnivalesque displays of European fans will be very unfamiliar to the rather
more publicly reserved Koreans and Japanese. Already in the build up to the
finals TV documentaries on hooliganism were very prominent on Japanese TV.
Hooliganism from foreigners may well be a problem in Japan - but so too,
potentially, is police overreaction to the exuberant behaviour of football
supporters drawn from different cultures. Hosting the World Cup is partly about
welcoming and enjoying cultural diversity - within the law, of course. There is
a danger that cultural difference at football can provoke problems when
tolerance to difference might be a better bet.
there is hooliganism in Japan and Korea, it is likely to come from a limited
number of, largely, European sources. So, despite the serious hooliganism in
their domestic club football, there is little prospect of hooliganism in Japan
from Italian fans - though racism might be a problem here. Italian 'ultras' do
not typically follow the national team. Nor will there be hooligans travelling
from France, Spain, Portugal or from many other of the major European football
powers. Few hooligans travel from South America for tournaments in Europe, even
though the hooligan problem in Argentina for example is a serious one. Heavy
drinking is connected, by many, with hooliganism, but the Danes and the Irish
will drink more than most in Japan - but will also be among the friendliest fans
there. Real attention will focus on the English and on the Germans. Fans from
these countries are normally at the centre of any very serious hooliganism
problems at major tournaments. English fans often claim now that they are
provoked into trouble when abroad, and it is certainly true that the reputation
of England fans precedes them and often stirs local youth into a challenging and
aggressive 'welcome' for the English.
Chair of the England Members Club and academic researcher Mark Perryman (2002)
discusses ways of trying to change how England football fans are viewed. He puts
forward a number of interesting recommendations on how to develop a new
'national community' for support of England which will ensure that England has
the 'best fans in the world'. Briefly, some of his ideas include:
Tourism should be promoted. Through inviting match ticket holders along to
travel forums, fans could be highlighted to officials from abroad not just as
hooligans but as people who are interested in other aspects of the cities they
visit. Perryman argues it would give a 'sense of majority' that English people
who travel to the major tournaments are amongst the best, not the worst,
supporters. Love Football Love England. Because of the greater numbers of
foreign players playing at every level of the game in this country the link
between nation and loyalty is not as strong these days, contends Perryman.
Wanting England to win and all others to lose should not be exclusive. 'Love
football, love England' is about encouraging people of other nationalities to
see England as their second team.
the Flag. The St George flag draped around somebody with a shaven head is often
an image publicised on television and in the newspapers. However this isn't the
whole picture, four fan-led initiatives have highlighted the 'friendliness' of
the St George flag.
Raise the Flag - this can be seen at nearly every England home game. It
is the red and white cards being held up by fans to form the St George Cross
flag, it is a positive image of support for England.
The St George Cross Banner - flags with the place of their owner printed
across the middle, on show at all England matches.
The Supporters' Band - playing the famous Great Escape tune it has nearly
become as popular as the national anthem as a way of identifying with England.
The Fan Embassies - Organised and run by the Football Supporters
Association (FSA), they accompany England to all games. Information and advice
is provided by them and they publish a free fanzine entitled Free Lions
argues that these four fan activities should be encouraged and supported to
create a new picture of what and who England fans are. Although very different
to following a league club every week, following England can mean a fan culture
which develops along the lines of those that we witness every week in league
Need Tickets? A 'fair tickets campaign' with the FA demanding that 15% of
tickets go to the two countries who are playing in the match.
Roads Don't Lead to Wembley. Perhaps not so surprisingly this proposal
highlights the massive successes that have been witnessed through England
playing at various football grounds around England. From St James' Park in the
North East to White Hart Lane in London the majority of fans support this
touring of the country even though fewer tickets are available than what would
have been the case if Wembley was still being used.
the Name of St George. National emotions increase considerably when a major
football tournament is taking place. Football becomes dominant in sport debates
but also makes main headlines in the news. Perryman argues that football should
highlight 'the good of St Georges Day'. At all levels of the game from school
football to Premier League football, a day should be spent "celebrating
football as part of the national community". A reinvention of what the
community of football means; highlighting the fact that it is not just men and
it isn't just whites. A 'softening' of the symbolic ideas associated with the
flag could be undertaken through highlighting the good that football can out
into the world on April 23rd, St George's Day.
This document has been approved by the head of department or section.