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Diameter12164 km, 0.95 x Earth's
Mass0.82 ME
Volume0.86 VE
Average Distance from Sun108 x 106km = 0.723 AU
ColourWhite cloud cover.
Surface is brown rock.
AtmosphereCarbon dioxide (96.5%)
Nitrogen (3.5%)
Clouds: Sulphuric acid
Length of Day243 days
Length of Year224.7 days
No. of MoonsNone
Gravity0.903 x Earth's

Dome-like hills caused by lava flows Venus is the second planet in our Solar System and is the brightest object in the sky after the Sun and Moon. Like all planets, Venus is seen because it reflects light from the Sun. The planet looks so bright because it is covered in a thick layer of cloud which reflects over half of the light shining onto it. These clouds are made of sulphuric acid.

Venus also has a lot of volcanoes which are erupting most of the time. This throws even more poisonous sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere, making it deadly to humans.

The temperature on the surface of Venus is about 470 C, hot enough to melt lead. There is no water left on the planet because it has all boiled away, and is a lot of lightning seen all of the time.

A 3D map of the surface from radar measurements The pressure on Venus is huge, enough to crush a human to death. The incredibly high pressures and temperatures mean that it is very difficult to land a spacecraft on the surface, and the atmosphere is also corrosive to metal. The Soviet spacecraft that landed on Venus lasted for only a few minutes before being destroyed.

The planet has been mapped by a spacecraft in orbit, showing that the surface is rocky with a lot of mountains. There are also some large, open flat areas. All of the features (such as mountains, canyons and volcanoes) on Venus are named after famous women except for the first one found, called Maxwell Mountain.

Venus spins the opposite way to the other planets. It also spins so slowly that a day on Venus lasts longer than a year.

Planets Introduction



The Moon










Extra-Solar Planets

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Authors: Carolyn Brinkworth and Claire Thomas

Last updated: July 2001