The brain can be subdivided into several distinct regions:
- The cerebral hemispheres form the largest part of the brain, occupying the anterior and middle cranial fossae in the skull and extending backwards over the tentorium cerebelli. They are made up of the cerebral cortex, the basal ganglia, tracts of synaptic connections, and the ventricles containing CSF.
- The Diencephalon (not shown above) includes the thalamus, hyopthalamus, epithalamus and subthalamus, and forms the central core of the brain. It is surrounded by the cerebral hemispheres.
- The Midbrain (not shown) is located at the junction of the middle and posterior cranial fossae.
- The Pons sits in the anterior part of the posterior cranial fossa- the fibres within the structure connect one cerebral hemisphere with its opposite cerebellar hemisphere.
- The Medulla Oblongata is continuous with the spinal cord, and is responsible for automatic control of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.
- The Cerebellum overlies the pons and medulla, extending beneath the tentorium cerebelli and occupying most of the posterior cranial fossa. It is mainly concerned with motor functions that regulate muscle tone, coordination, and posture.