School of Historical Studies

Carolingian Polyptyques


The terminology of the polyptyques differs from place to place so each polyptyque has its own glossary. What follows is a consolidated glossary of the terminology of all the polyptyques.

ad carnem – for meat
ad hostem – army tax
ad regis servicium – for the service of the king
ad regis servitium – for the royal peace
agnellos – lambs
anforas – amphorae: a two handled jar; liquid measure
angera – cartage
annona - wheat or provisions
antequam acciperet maritum
– before receiving a husband
aries - ram
- an arpent (applied to vines)
arpent –  a measure of land/vineyards
ascipiunt – they have witnessed
avena - straw/ reed
bannus – ban
beneficium – held in benefice
bunari, bunaria, bunuaria – a measure of land
cambaca – bakery/bread oven
cambam – oven
capons – male fatted chickens
capras – she-goats
carradam de virga – cartload of rods
carrata/ carrada – A cartload
carratas – meadows
carropera – cartage service
carrua / carruca - a cart
carruam – cartage service
casa dominicata – a desmesne household, a household belonging to a lord
caseus – cheese
cavalitum – army tax
cavaticarii – tax-payers
cellario – cellar/storeroom
cellerarii – cellarers
censam – rent
cera – beeswax
cervisia – beer
olona – country-woman
colonus – crofter, farmer, settler or colonist
communiter – altogether
congius – Roman liquid measure of around 6 pints
congruis adiacentiis – adjacent land
cooperetur – help
corbadam – plough service
corte – central
culturae – cultivated areas
cum eulogiis – with oblations
curtem – home farm
de alio latere – the other side
de carractionibus – reeds
de cavatico – head tax
de garbis de campania – corn stacks in the field
de pascione – Easter
de suis diebus – his own [free] days
de uno latere – on one side
deani – deans
debere – to render
denarius – silver coin
dimidiam hůbas – half sized farmstead
dolatorus – an adze: a woodworking tool with a cutting blade in the shape of a hoe or
plane, rather than an axe.
domo coltili – farmsteads
ebdomada - weekly service
faba - broad bean
faculas – small torches
familia – estate
feno carra – cartloads of hay
fenum - hay
forestarii – foresters
formaticos – cheese
frons – frontage
frumentum - corn
fusa lini - spun flax
garba – a unit
germani – brother
glavis – woodrick
haistaldi – semi-free workers
haribannum – army tax
hircos – he-goats
hostilicum – army tax
in altum -  alternatively
in banno – for the ban
in beneficium – in benifice/demense
in censu – in tax
in eulogiis panes – bread
in hostelicium – army tax
in hostem – to the army
in posterum – in the future
in tertia ebdomada – every third week
in unaquaque ebdomada – each and every week
integras hůbas – standard sized farmstead
inter duos mansos  - between two farms
inter totos annis singulis – every single year
inter tres mansos – per three farms
iornale – a unit of land area
iuctus - unit of land, esp. vines. See also arpent.
iurnales – a unit of land area
iugera - area 5/8ths of an acre, 240 Roman feet
leuva - a unit of area
libera – a free woman
libra – pound
lidus/lida  - a farm dependant, albeit neither a slave nor a freeman/woman
lignari – cut wood
ligno - timber
ligumen  - mattock
lino fascium – flax or pitch-torch
linum - flax/ linen cloth
malleos cementariorum – making bricks
manicipia – unfree servants
mansa apsa – vacant farm
mansa indomincata – desmense farms
mansa ingenuilia – unfree farm
mansa integra servilia – unfree farms of standard size
manse – a farm unit
mansi [h]ospicia – dependent holdings/farms
mansi caroperarii – free farm owing ploughing service
mansi manoperarii – unfree farm owing manual service
mansi serviles – dependant farms
mansi servilis – unfree farms
mansionem – main house
mansos absos – uninhabited farms
mansum dominicatum – a demesne farm/ a farm belonging to the lord
mansum indominicatum – a demense farm/ a farm belonging to the lord
mansus  in beneficio – a farm in benefice, a demesne farm
mapaticas/mappae - strips of land
modius – unit of measure
mel – beeswax, honey
multones – mules
multonus - wether (a male sheep, usually a castrated one). See also vervex.
oblations - friendship tax
ordeum - Barley
ortum – garden
ovum – egg
pascionem de vino – wine pasture
pectura - service of enclosure
pecturam culturam dominicata - the cultivated area of the demesne
per annos singulos – every single year
pertica - a perch (c. 15 feet)
pictura - unit of exploitation of vineyards (57 pictura = 72,000 litres)
poledrarii – stablemen
porcos nutrire – suckling pigs
prato – meadow
pro bove – instead of oxen
pro homine redimendo de oste - for the remission of a man from army service
pro hostelic(i)o – in lieu of military service
pro levamine – for relief of service
pro prandio – for meals
pullus - chicken
pultrella – filly
redere – to render
redimunt – remit
scara - messenger or military service.
scaram facit  – messenger service
sediles – urban plots
seiga – a measure of weight
sella – cell
senioris granicam – the older grange
servus - slave
sextarius - a pint
sicclus – a measure of weight
siceram  - scythe or rye
siclo – rye
sinapis – mustard
situla – urns
solidus – gold coin
sors – parcel of land
sub servitutis iugo – under the yoke of servitude
suprapositis – roundabout
tali ratione – in such a way
telonarii – toll-collectors
terra censale – rent-paying land
triticum - wheat
uncia – coinage
uniquisque – each and every one
unius sationis – one sowing
vasa apium – beehives
vervex - a wether sheep
vestiti mansi – inhabited farm
via publica – publicroad
vindemialis – grape harvest
vineis – vineyard
vinericiam  - wine haulage
viridarius – orchard
wactas/wagtas – watch duty
xendochium – pilgrim hostels


UPDATED:January 2008
This document has been approved by the head of department or section.