School of Historical Studies

Carolingian Polyptyques

The Polyptych of Bobbio I

1.1 Here begins the summary of everything pertaining to the monastery of Bobbio, centrally and further away. It was investigated and inventoried in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ 862, in the time of the most serene and august lord Louis [II], that is the 13th year of his empire, the 15th indiction. [The task was undertaken] by those certain faithful and suitable messengers who diligently enquired into everything so that they discovered the buildings, sacred treasures and external things, and made to strengthen them under the sacraments of faith.

1.2 The first discovery was the monastery itself, having 6 solarias and 30 casas terraneas; however, there they were able to sow 410 measures, produce 150 amphorae of wine, and 600 cartloads of hay. They have woods there in which it is estimated […] number of pigs could be fattened in good time. They witnessed 28 libellari of the monastery, who render 260 quart measures of grain in a good year, 5 medium-sized amphorae of wine, provide 9 weeks service a year, render 8 solidi, 36 chickens plus eggs.

1.3 In the valley below the monastery there are 4 salt mines. 1 of these gives the monastery when necessary 284 measures of salt, and in a good year 8 amphorae of wine and 30 cartloads of hay. The second mine 45 measures [of salt], plus 6 pints of honey, 5 pounds of beeswax, 3 amphorae of wine, and 8 cartloads of hay. The third produces 100 measures [of salt], 12 wether sheep, 1 congium of honey, 4 amphorae of wine, and 8 cartloads of hay. The fourth renders 67 measures of salt, and produces 3 amphorae of wine.


2.1 In the oraculum of St Maria, one is able to sow 60 measures in a good year, make 10 amphorae of wine in a good year, 40 cartloads of hay, and provides service precisely as they are ordered. There are 2 massarii who render 8 measures of grain, 5 amphorae of wine, 8 denarii, 4 chickens plus eggs. There is another parcel of land there which renders 12 pints of grain, 1 1b of beeswax; and 1 parcel of land which renders 4 measures of grain, 4 congia of wine, 6 denarii, 2 chickens plus eggs; and they are to provide service precisely as they are ordered.

2.2 In the oraculum of St Martin, one is able to sow 61 measures per year, make 15 amphorae of wine in a good year, […] cartloads of hay [and provides service precisely as they are ordered]. There are 8 massarii who render 26 quart measures of grain, 4 amphorae of wine, 1 solidi, […] chickens and eggs. They are to provide service 3 days a week.


3.1 In the cell of Castiglione Chiavarese, it is possible to sow8 measures a year, make 9 amphorae of wine, 1 cartload of hay, 40 lbs of oil. There are 4 libellarii, who in a good year render 4 amphorae of wine, 4 congia, 41 lbs of oil, and serve 8 days.

3.2 In Montelungo there is a cell in honour of St Mary. It is possible to sow 60 measures a year, [make] 15 amphorae of wine, 20 cartloads of hay. There is a wood for the fattening of 1000 pigs, and in a good year it produces 20 animals and 60 lbs of cheese. There are 2 libellarii and 17 massarii, who render 78 measures of grain, 36 amphorae of wine in a good year, 11 solidi, 8 denarii, 27 chickens plus eggs, and provide 2 days service per week. There are 2 vacant plots which owe 8 third measures of grain and [1] medium measure of wine; and 3 arimanni who make bridges on their own property in Pavia with part of the monastery. There are 27 libellarii, massarii, arimanni and vacant plots together with farmsteads.


4.1 In Piacenza there is a pilgrim hostel in honour of the Resurrection. It is able to sow 50 measures a year and [make] 2 cartloads of hay. There are there 6 libellarii and 5 vacant plots. They render at a good time 108 third measures of grain, 30 amphorae of wine, 5 solidi, 2 denarii, 14 chickens plus eggs. 12 paupers are fed on the kalends.

4.2 In Pavia there is the pilgrim hostel of St Columbanus. It has one farmstead. It is able to sow 18 measures a year, make 20 amphorae of wine, and produce 24 cartloads of hay. There is a wood  there where it is possible to fatten 40 pigs. There are 8 libellarii [who render service]; 4 massarii, 1 vacant plot, who give 106 third measures of grain, 28 amphorae of wine, 7 solidi, 10 denarii, 14 chickens plus eggs; they do the work ordered of them; 200 paupers are fed on the kalends there are libellarii and massarii with 13 farmsteads, and one vacant one.

5 The total of this, which the brothers have seen to have for their use:

5.1 Land for the production of 1873 measures [of grain]; 1074 amphorae of wine from the farmsteads, massarii and vacant plots; 4 congia, a total of 1494 cartloads of hay; woods for the fattening of 2890 pigs. There are 610 libellarii massarii and vacant plots together with 590 farmsteads; they provide 2820 measures and 3 pints of grain. Also 10 lbs of silver, 1 solidus, 4 denarii, 889 chickens, 2885 measures of oil, 174 lbs of cheese and 60 frisk.

5.2 The land is sown with 148 measures [of corn], [makes] 154 amphorae of wine from the farmsteads and massarii, 64 cartloads of hay, and woods for fattening 630 pigs. There are 62 massarii, libellarii and vacant plots, owing 438 measures, 17 silver solidi, 11 denarii, 110 chickens plus eggs, and 160 lbs of cheese.



UPDATED:January 2008
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