School of Historical Studies

Carolingian Polyptyques

Bobbio I

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The Polyptych of Bobbio I

1.1 …bus Ebobiensi monasterio intrinsecus et extrinsecus pertinentibus, qualiter inquistum inventumque est anno Iesus Christi DCCCLXII, tempore domini Hluduici serenissimi augusti, scilicet anno imperii sui tertiodecimo, indicione XV, per suos quosdam idoneos hac fideles missos, qui omnia diligenter inquirentes tam edificia quamque et sacraria thesauros ac res exteriores invenerunt et sub sacramenta fidei firmare fecerunt. 1.1 Here begins the summary of everything pertaining to the monastery of Bobbio, centrally and further away. It was investigated and inventoried in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ 862, in the time of the most serene and august lord Louis [II], that is the 13th year of his empire, the 15th indiction. [The task was undertaken] by those certain faithful and suitable messengers who diligently enquired into everything so that they discovered the buildings, sacred treasures and external things, and made to strengthen them under the sacraments of faith.
1.2 In primis repertum est ipsud monasterium ordinatum, habens vidilicet solarias VI, casas terraneas XXX; possunt autem ibi seminare per annum modia CCCCX, vinum facit anforas CL, feno carra DC; habetur ibi silva, in qua compertum est sub estimatione posse per bonum tempus saginare porcos […] ; aspitiunt ad ipsud monasterium liberalli XXVIII, reddunt grano quarto per bonum tempus modia CCLX, vinum medietatem anforas V, faciunt per annum opera ebdomadas VIIII, reddunt solidos VIII, pullos XXXVI et ova. 1.2 The first discovery was the monastery itself, having 6 solarias and 30 casas terraneas; however, there they were able to sow 410 measures, produce 150 amphorae of wine, and 600 cartloads of hay. They have woods there in which it is estimated […] number of pigs could be fattened in good time. They witnessed 28 libellari of the monastery, who render 260 quart measures of grain in a good year, 5 medium-sized amphorae of wine, provide 9 weeks service a year, render 8 solidi, 36 chickens plus eggs.
1.3 Sunt namque infra valle ipsius saline quattor, reddit una ex illis ad cunctas necessitates monasterii sal modia CCLXXXIIII, fit ibi per bonum tempus vinum anforas VIII, feno carra XXX; alia reddit seligine modia III XLV, mel sextarios V, cera libras V, facit vinum anforas III, feno carra VIII; tertia reddit spelta modia C, vervices XII, mel congium I, facit vinum anforas IIII, feno carra VIII; quarta reddit sal modia LXVII, facit vinum anforas III. 1.3 In the valley below the monastery there are 4 salt mines. 1 of these gives the monastery when necessary 284 measures of salt, and in a good year 8 amphorae of wine and 30 cartloads of hay. The second mine 45 measures [of salt], plus 6 pints of honey, 5 pounds of beeswax, 3 amphorae of wine, and 8 cartloads of hay. The third produces 100 measures [of salt], 12 wether sheep, 1 congium of honey, 4 amphorae of wine, and 8 cartloads of hay. The fourth renders 67 measures of salt, and produces 3 amphorae of wine.
2 INFRA VALLE AUTEM PREFATI MONASTERII SUNT ORACULA VII 2 IN THE VALLEY BELOW THE AFOREMENTIONED MONASTERY THERE ARE 7 ORACULA

2.1 In oracula sancte Marie potest seminare per annum modia LX, vinum facit per bonum tempus anforas X, feno carra XL, facit opera ad monasterium prout eis imperatur; sunt ibi massarii II, reddunt grano modia VIII, vinum anforas V, denarios VIII, pullos IIII et ova; est alia sors que reddit grano sextarios XII, cera libram I; est ibi sors una, rddit grano modia IIII, vinum congios IIII, denarios VI, pullos II et ova; opera faciunt prout eis imperatur.

2.1 In the oraculum of St Maria, one is able to sow 60 measures in a good year, make 10 amphorae of wine in a good year, 40 cartloads of hay, and provides service precisely as they are ordered. There are 2 massarii who render 8 measures of grain, 5 amphorae of wine, 8 denarii, 4 chickens plus eggs. There is another parcel of land there which renders 12 pints of grain, 1 1b of beeswax; and 1 parcel of land which renders 4 measures of grain, 4 congia of wine, 6 denarii, 2 chickens plus eggs; and they are to provide service precisely as they are ordered.

2.2 In oracula sancti Martini potest seminare per annum modia LVI, vinum facit per bonum tempus anforas XV, feno carra […] facit opera ad monasterium […] quod ei imperatur; sunt ibi massarii VIII, reddunt grano quarto modia XXVI, vinum anforas IIII, solidum I, pullos   […] et ov; faciunt opera per ebdomadam dies III. 2.2 In the oraculum of St Martin, one is able to sow 61 measures per year, make 15 amphorae of wine in a good year, […] cartloads of hay [and provides service precisely as they are ordered]. There are 8 massarii who render 26 quart measures of grain, 4 amphorae of wine, 1 solidi, […] chickens and eggs. They are to provide service 3 days a week.
3 NUNC DE CELLIS EXTERIORIBUS 3 [NOW] THE EXTERIOR CELLS

3.1 In Castellione cella, potest seminare per annum modia VIII, vinum per bonum tempus anforas VIIII, feno carrum I, oleo libras XL; sunt ibi liberalli IIII, reddunt vinum per bonum tempus anforas IIII et media, oleo libras XLI, faciunt opera dies VIII.

3.1 In the cell of Castiglione Chiavarese, it is possible to sow8 measures a year, make 9 amphorae of wine, 1 cartload of hay, 40 lbs of oil. There are 4 libellarii, who in a good year render 4 amphorae of wine, 4 congia, 41 lbs of oil, and serve 8 days.

3.2 In Monte Longo cella in honore sancte Maria, potest seminare per annum modia LX, vinum facit anforas XV, feno carra XX; habetur ibi silva ad mille porcos saginandum, exeunt de ipsa silva per bonum tempus animalia XX, caseum librae LX; sunt ibi liberalli II, massarii XVII, reddunt grano modia LXXVIII, vinum per bonum tempus anforas XXXVI, solidos XI, denarios VIII, pullos XXVII et ova, faciunt opera ebdomadas II; sunt absentes II, qui reddunt grano tertio modia VIII, vinum medietatem; et arimanni III, qui de suo proprio pontem fatiunt in Papia, cum parte monasterii; sunt liberalli, massarii, arimanni atque absentes pariter cum domo coltili XXVII. 3.2 In Montelungo there is a cell in honour of St Mary. It is possible to sow 60 measures a year, [make] 15 amphorae of wine, 20 cartloads of hay. There is a wood for the fattening of 1000 pigs, and in a good year it produces 20 animals and 60 lbs of cheese. There are 2 libellarii and 17 massarii, who render 78 measures of grain, 36 amphorae of wine in a good year, 11 solidi, 8 denarii, 27 chickens plus eggs, and provide 2 days service per week. There are 2 vacant plots which owe 8 third measures of grain and [1] medium measure of wine; and 3 arimanni who make bridges on their own property in Pavia with part of the monastery. There are 27 libellarii, massarii, arimanni and vacant plots together with farmsteads.
4 DE XENODOCHIIS 4 OF THE PILGRIM HOSTELS.

4.1 In Placentia xenodochium in honore sancte Resurrectionis, potest seminare per annum modia L, feno carra II, sunt ibi libellarii VI, absentes V, reddunt per bonum tempus tertio graqno modia CVIII, vinum anforas XXX, solidos V, denarios II, pullos XIIII et ova; pascuntur inde pauperes per kalendas XII.

4.1 In Piacenza there is a pilgrim hostel in honour of the Resurrection. It is able to sow 50 measures a year and [make] 2 cartloads of hay. There are there 6 libellarii and 5 vacant plots. They render at a good time 108 third measures of grain, 30 amphorae of wine, 5 solidi, 2 denarii, 14 chickens plus eggs. 12 paupers are fed on the kalends.

4.2 In Papia xenodochium sancti Columbani, habet domo coltilem I, potest seminare per annum modia XVIII, vinum per bonum tempus anforas XX, feno carra XXIIII; est ibi silva ad XL porcos saginandum; sunt ibi liberalli VIII, massarii IIII, absens I, reddunt grano tertio modia CVI, vinum anforas XXVIII, solidos VII, denarios X, pullos XIIII et ova; faciunt opera prout eis imperatur; pascuntur inde pauperes per kalendas CC; sunt liberalli et massarii cum domo coltili XIII, absente I. 4.2 In Pavia there is the pilgrim hostel of St Columbanus. It has one farmstead. It is able to sow 18 measures a year, make 20 amphorae of wine, and produce 24 cartloads of hay. There is a wood  there where it is possible to fatten 40 pigs. There are 8 libellarii [who render service]; 4 massarii, 1 vacant plot, who give 106 third measures of grain, 28 amphorae of wine, 7 solidi, 10 denarii, 14 chickens plus eggs; they do the work ordered of them; 200 paupers are fed on the kalends there are libellarii and massarii with 13 farmsteads, and one vacant one.
5 Summa de hoc quod fratres habere videntur ad suos usus: 5 The total of this, which the brothers have seen to have for their use:

5.1 est terra ad seminandum modia mille DCCCLXXIII vinum inter domo coltiles et massarios atque absentes anforas mille LXXIIII, congios IIII, feno carra super totum mille CCCCXCIIII; est silva ad porcos saginandum duo militia DCCCXC; sunt massarii libellarii atque absentes pariter cum domo coltilibus DCX; reddunt grano modia duo milia DCCCXX, sextarios III; et est argentum libras X, solidum I, denarios IIII, pullos DCCCLXXXVIIII, oleo libras duo milia DCCCLXXXV, formatico libras CLXXIIII, frisk LX.

5.1 Land for the production of 1873 measures [of grain]; 1074 amphorae of wine from the farmsteads, massarii and vacant plots; 4 congia, a total of 1494 cartloads of hay; woods for the fattening of 2890 pigs. There are 610 libellarii massarii and vacant plots together with 590 farmsteads; they provide 2820 measures and 3 pints of grain. Also 10 lbs of silver, 1 solidus, 4 denarii, 889 chickens, 2885 measures of oil, 174 lbs of cheese and 60 frisk.

5.2 Est terra ad seminandum modia CXLVIII, vinum inter domo coltiles et massarios anforas CLIIII, feno carra LXIIII; est silva ad porcos saginandum DCXXX; sunt massarii libellarii atque absentes LXII, reddunt modia CCCCXXXVIII, argentum solidos XVII, denarios XI, pullos CX et ova, formaticos libras CLX.

5.2 The land is sown with 148 measures [of corn], [makes] 154 amphorae of wine from the farmsteads and massarii, 64 cartloads of hay, and woods for fattening 630 pigs. There are 62 massarii, libellarii and vacant plots, owing 438 measures, 17 silver solidi, 11 denarii, 110 chickens plus eggs, and 160 lbs of cheese.

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UPDATED:January 2008
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