Thermodynamics offers an elegant summary of the experience gained by chemists in chemical laboratories and an indication of how experimental data can be analysed to gain an understanding of chemical reactions. For the most part chemists are concerned with the properties of solutions in the context of (i) chemical equilibria, and (ii) chemical reactions between solute molecules, thereby synthesising new chemical substances. Underlying these important phenomena, chemical equilibria and spontaneous chemical reactions, are quantitative statements based on chemical thermodynamics [1-11].
 The crucial importance of this subject was signalled to chemists by the monograph written by G. N. Lewis and M. Randall, Thermodynamics and The Free Energy of Chemical Substances, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1923. The impact of this monograph can be judged from the observation that the copy owned by one of the authors (MJB) is marked as the 23rd. impression of the first edition.
 We confine attention to the thermodynamic properties of closed systems. The thermodynamic properties of open systems are discussed in references  to .
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North Holland, Amsterdam, 1962.
 D. G. Miller, Chem.Rev.,1960,60 ,15.
 A. Katchalsky and P.F.Curran, Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Biophysics, Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1964.
 R. Haase, Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes, Dover, New York, 1990.
 I. Prigogine, From Being to Becoming, Benjamin, San Francisco, 1980.
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