Innocent victims of conflict
In any society subjected to war or violence, children are the innocent victims. Even if they are not injured themselves, the experience is understandably traumatic. In conflict zones, children’s mental health is affected both directly – through witnessing violence and experiencing loss – and indirectly due to the impaired ability of parents to provide comfort and protection and the disruption of vital support networks.
In 2015, Professor Panos Vostanis from our Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour launched the global World Awareness for Children in Trauma (WACIT) campaign. Its vision is to raise awareness on child mental health worldwide, and to establish ways of helping children who have suffered trauma and live in the most adverse life circumstances.
“In any society, about one in 10 children and young people up to the age of 18 years suffer from mental health problems: emotional, behavioural, developmental problems or mental illness,” says Panos. “These rates can rise up to 40 per cent, or even higher, if children have experienced traumatic events such as abuse and neglect, war, being raised in care, or living on the streets.”
Why this is needed
The WACIT programme is at the centre of the University of Leicester’s official development assistance (ODA)-related research bids, part of the UK Government’s focus to improve the economies of low-middle income countries.
“Many countries do not have child mental health policies or services; whilst others do not have legal frameworks on how to protect children most in need. No single country can provide all answers and services required and so an international perspective is central to our child mental health research strategy,” explains Panos.
Over the past two years, Panos has worked with volunteers and staff of NGOs, orphanages and other specialist centres in eight countries to develop a standardised approach which can be used with children who may have limited, or no, access to specialised trauma services.
This new model has six levels
- Safety and child protection
- Nurturing environments
- Building resilience through schools and communities
- Applying the principles of therapeutic approaches in schools and other group settings
- Trauma-focused interventions adapted for children
- Use of limited mental health resources
In November 2015, Panos launched an international Child Mental Health campaign with State Islamic University Jakarta. The programme focuses on promoting child wellbeing by integrating cultural diversity in schools, clinical, and community settings. A training model was also implemented with volunteers and staff of NGOs in Jakarta to demonstrate how they can help children who have experienced trauma and how to establish sustainable support networks.
Since then he has visited eight countries across six continents in six weeks to further help with the development of a model to help children who have suffered from trauma and adversity. Panos’ world tour took in Greece, Turkey, Indonesia, Australia, the USA, Brazil, Kenya and Tanzania. IN each location he developed child trauma workshops to promote awareness, safety and resilience-building for children while also participating in child-centred activities including sports and arts events.
Researcher profile: Professor Panos Vostanis
Panos Vostanis is Professor of Child Mental Health at the University of Leicester in the UK, and Consultant at the Leicestershire Child Mental Health Service. After graduating with a medical degree from the University of Athens in 1985, he trained in psychiatry in the UK, becoming a Member of the Royal College of Psychiatrists in 1991 and a Fellow in 2010. His books include Helping Children and Young People Who Experience Trauma: Children of Despair, Children of Hope (2014) and A Practical Guide: To Helping Children and Young People Who Experience Trauma (2016).