University of Leicester eBulletin

Ready to Dig the Dirt on Mars

November 2002
No 264

The University of Leicester has successfully completed construction and test of the flight Model PAW, the 'eyes and hand' of the Beagle 2 Mars lander. 
The Beagle 2 project aims to send a UK-led lander to Mars in December 2003 as part of the European Space Agency’s Mars Express Mission, due for launch at the end of May 2003.
University team members and flight model PAW

The robotic lander, controlled remotely from Earth, will sample the soil, rocks and atmosphere of Mars in its search for signs of past and present life. In addition it will examine the detailed geology and environment of the landing site (Isidis Planitia).
The Beagle 2 probe is named after HMS Beagle, the ship in which Charles Darwin sailed.
The Flight Model PAW (Position Adjustable Workbench) is an integrated collection of instruments and tools for Beagle 2 that has been constructed over the last five months and has just completed a vigorous test programmme. 
This programme included a vibration and shock test to simulate the rocket launch and the landing on Mars and a thermal test to simulate Martian temperatures at the European Space Agency’s Technology Centre at Noordwijk in the Netherlands.
The PAW is constructed around a lightweight cast aluminium structure and its own set of control electronics both designed and assembled at the University of Leicester. 

Mounted on the PAW are:

· A Stereo Pair of Cameras to image the landing site and identify nearby rocks- provided by a consortium led by Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London
· A Microscope to examine the microscopic structure of the rocks and soil - provided by the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy Lindau in Germany
· A Gamma-ray Mossbauer Spectrometer to measure the oxidisation state of iron minerals in the soil and rocks - provided by the University of Mainz in Germany
· An X-ray Spectrometer to measure the elemental composition of the rocks and soil - provided by the Leicester team led by Professor George Fraser
· A Rock Corer/Grinder provided by Hong Kong Polytechnic Hong Kong, China with technical assistance from Leicester based on a concept developed by TC Ng
· A Mole, a self burying drill and soil collection device - built by a consortium led by DLR (German Aerospace Research Establishment) Koln.
The cameras and microscope utilise identical camera heads provided by Space-X of Switzerland who also provided some of the optical elements of the cameras. Satellite Services BV of the Netherlands provided key parts of the test equipment. 
Dr Mark Sims the Beagle 2 Mission Manager said "This was very much a team effort led by the Instrument Manager Derek Pullan and the PAW Chief Engineer Shaun Whitehead at the University of Leicester. The flight PAW is the culmination of four years of effort by the Leicester team and the instrument providers. Following integration with the Beagle 2 lander at the Open University, the next time the PAW will be used is on Mars in December 2003".
The FM PAW has now been delivered for integration and test with the flight structure and electronics of the Beagle 2 probe at the Open University. Beagle 2 will be delivered to the Mars Express project in January 2003.
The construction and test of the Beagle 2 PAW at Leicester has been funded by the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council and from internal resources at the University of Leicester. The Beagle 2 project is a consortium led by the Open University together with the University of Leicester and Astrium UK Ltd at Stevenage. Beagle 2 is funded in part by the UK Department of Trade and Industry (via the British National Space Centre), the European Space Agency, and from internal resources provided by the consortium members. Whilst the balance of the cost of the project has been underwritten, a proportion of the funding will be recouped by sponsorship and commercial advertising.
For further details please contact: 

University of Leicester:
Dr Mark Sims Tel: 0116 252 3513
Derek Pullan Tel: 0116 223 1045
Shaun Whitehead Tel 0116 252 3498
Ather Mirza, Press Office Tel: 0116 252 3335
Beagle 2 Resources:
Beagle 2 website:
Professor Colin Pillinger, Open University Tel: 01908 652119
Dr Judith Pillinger, Open University (for press contacts) Tel: 01908 655049
Instrument Providers:
Dr Andrew Coates, Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London Tel: 01483 204 145

Dr Nick Thomas, Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy, Lindau, Germany Tel: +49 555 697 9437

Dr Göstar Klingelhöfer, University of Mainz, Germany Tel: +49 6131 393282

Professor George Fraser, University of Leicester, UK Tel: 0116 252 3542

Professor K L Yung, Hong Kong Polytechnic, Hong Kong, China Tel: 852 276 66 592

Dr Lutz Richter, German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR), Koln, Germany Tel: +49 2203601 4568

Dr Jean-Luc Josset, Space-X, Neuchâtel, Switzerland Tel: +41 32 720 55 34 

Greg Sims, Managing Director, Satellite Services BV, Scheepmakerstraat 40, 2222 Katwijk ann Zee The Netherlands Tel: +31 71 402 81 20              

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Last updated: December 2002
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